In a large pot, place the garlic, chopped onion, chopped ginger, and dried shiitake mushrooms (or replace with any other kind of fresh mushrooms).
Add the water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low and cook for about 30 minutes. See Note.
When the broth is ready, remove from heat and strain. Reserve the mushrooms to add to the soup.
Pour the broth back into the pot. Add the soy or tamari sauce and miso. Stir until the miso dissolves completely. Add the coconut milk. Stir again and remove from the heat. Cover to keep warm.
Cover the chopped red cabbage with hot water and a drizzle of white vinegar. Let soften, strain, and set aside.
While preparing the broth, cook the noodles in boiling water according to the package instructions. Strain and set aside.
Heat 3 tablespoons of the vegetable oil in a pan and cook the slices of tofu until golden brown and crispy on both sides. Set aside.
Sauté the kale in a pan with the remaining oil until softened. Set aside.
Ladle the broth into four soup bowls. Add noodles, mushrooms, tofu, kale and cabbage, dividing between the four servings. Garnish with the black sesame seeds, red chili, and green onions.
For a quick version, cook the mushroom broth for 15 minutes. However, the longer it is cooked, the tastier it will be. It’s possible that you will need to add additional water.